Chinese curlture

Spring Festival (one of the four traditional festivals in China)+
The Spring Festival, or lunar new year, is the first of a year and a traditional festival. Commonly known as new year, new year, new year, new year’s day, new year’s day, new year’s day, new year’s day, new year’s day, new year’s day, and so on. The Spring Festival has a long history, which evolved from praying for the first year in ancient times. All things are based on heaven, people are based on ancestors, praying for the new year, worshiping the heavenly Father, and returning to the original. The origin of Spring Festival contains profound cultural connotation, which carries rich historical and cultural connotation in the inheritance and development. During the Spring Festival, various celebrations of Spring Festival were held throughout the country, with strong regional characteristics and joyous atmosphere. These activities were mainly composed of old and new cloth, exorcism, disaster worship, worship of gods, and prayer for good fortune. [1-2]
In ancient times, people began to “busy the new year” from the end of the year’s 23rd or 24th sacrifice kitchen, and the new year didn’t end until the 19th of the first month. In modern times, people set the Spring Festival on the first day of the first lunar month, but it usually doesn’t end until the 15th of the first lunar month. Festival exchange and greetings convey the ethics of family and friends in the countryside. It is an important festival for people to deepen their feelings. It is a traditional festival of joy and peace and the gathering of family and friends. [2-4]
Spring Festival is the most ceremonious traditional festival of the Chinese nation, which not only embodies the Chinese nation’s ideological belief, ideal wishes, life entertainment and cultural psychology, but also a carnival display of praying, catering and entertainment activities. Influenced by Chinese culture, some countries and regions in the world also have the custom of celebrating the new year. According to incomplete statistics, nearly 20 countries and regions have designated Chinese Spring Festival as a legal holiday for the whole or some cities under their jurisdiction. Spring Festival, Qingming Festival, Dragon Boat Festival and Mid Autumn Festival are also called the four traditional festivals in China. The folk customs of the Spring Festival have been approved by the State Council to be included in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list. [5-7

Festival origin editor
Spring Festival
Spring Festival
The origin of ancient traditional festivals is related to the primitive belief, sacrificial culture, celestial phenomena, calendar and other cultural and natural contents. According to the research results of modern anthropology and archaeology, there are two primitive beliefs of human beings: one is the belief of heaven and earth, the other is the belief of ancestors. Most of the ancient traditional festivals were formed in the activities of the ancients choosing a day to sacrifice to thank the gods and ancestors. The early festival culture reflects the ancient people’s humanistic spirit of natural worship, unity of nature and human, careful pursuit of the future, and solid foundation of thinking; a series of sacrificial activities contain profound cultural connotation of only respect, sense of morality, etiquette and music civilization. The formation of the new year’s Day (New Year’s day) covers the philosophy of humanity and the laws of nature. [9-10]
The concept of “age” comes from the ancient calendar, “Pangu Wangbiao” and “Sanming Tonghui”, etc. both contain: “the name of the emperor’s starting to make cadres and branches to determine the age of the place.”. “Sui” means “Shiti” (the original branch), also known as “SuiXing” and “Taisui”. Sixty year olds (chronology of branches and branches) as the cycle of operation, which goes back and forth. In the process of inheritance and development, later generations simplified this set of polysyllabic Shiti era (SUI) terms into one word, which has a comparative relationship with the simplified branches in Erya and Shiji. Such as: Taisui in Yin said take tiger, in Mao said Dan Yan In Confucius, I was trapped, in ugliness, I was chifen Ruo. The ancients took the heavenly trunk and earth branch as the carrier. The heavenly trunk carried the way of heaven and earth, and the earth branch carried the way of earth. The heavenly trunk and earth branch formed in the sky, formed in the earth, and carried out in the people. Therefore, the heavenly trunk and earth branch were set up to carry the luck of heaven, earth and people. The combination of ten Heavenly Stems and twelve Earthly Branches formed a 60 cycle era, with the construction of December and 24 solar terms as its basic contents. In the Ganzhi era, the dipper handle of Beidou star points to the “Jianyin” moon, which is due to the east by North, and then rotates clockwise to start the one-year-old process. Yin Wei is the gen position of the acquired eight trigrams, the position of the year-end and the beginning of the year, which represents the end and the beginning. For example, “Yi Shuogua Zhuan” said: “gen, the Northeast trigram, the end and the beginning of all things.” That is to say, from the beginning of spring to the next, it is one year old, and the beginning of spring is the beginning of the year. [9-12]
The establishment of the ancient Gan Zhi calendar provided the precondition for the festival, and the primitive belief and sacrificial culture were the important factors for the formation of the festival. The Spring Festival is evolved from praying for the Spring Festival. In ancient times, people held sacrificial activities at the beginning of the new year at the end of the first year of farming to offer sacrifices to the gods and ancestors of heaven and earth and pray for a good year. Although the situation of ancient sacrificial rites is not clear, we can still find some relics of ancient customs from the festival rites of later generations. For example, in some parts of the south of the five ridges, there is a custom of worshiping the year on the first day of the new year. During the new year, there are grand activities of worshiping gods and ancestors, which shows the clues of praying for the new year in the ancient times. In the original sense, the beginning of the year refers to the beginning of spring, which is the meaning of the beginning of all things and all changes, which means that a new cycle has been opened. Therefore, the beginning of the year is called “the beginning of the year” (the beginning of the year), which is also called “the year’s Day”. A series of festival activities in the Spring Festival not only constitute the framework of the first festival in the future, but also its folk function remains to this day. The origin and development of Spring Festival is a process of gradually forming, imperceptibly improving and popularizing. As an important part of Chinese traditional culture, spring festival culture reflects the profound Chinese culture, and also records the rich and colorful social life and culture of ancient people. [3] [13-17]

Editor of historical development
Time evolution
Time coordinate – bucket handle pointing
Time coordinate – bucket handle pointing
The astrological culture of our country has a long history and is extensive and profound. The ancients began to explore the mysteries of the universe very early, and deduced a complete and profound culture of observing stars. In the ancient times, the change of the stars space was used to indicate the time change of the four seasons of a year. The Big Dipper stars revolved in a circle, which was closely related to the change of seasons. The Big Dipper is an important star image in the northern hemisphere. When the stars change, the yellow and red angles of the northern hemisphere and the climate and phenology of the surrounding areas are also changing. Therefore, it became the basis for people to judge the changes of seasons and solar terms in the ancient times, that is, the astrological law of “dipper refers to the East, the world is spring; dipper refers to the world is summer; dipper refers to the west, the world is autumn; dipper refers to the north, the world is winter” 。 The handle rotation of the Big Dipper seven stars points to “Twelve Chen” in turn, which is called “Twelve moon construction” (or “Twelve moon order”). The “construction” represents the direction of the top of the handle of the Big Dipper seven stars. The handle starts from the Yin position and turns around the East, South, West and North. At the end of the year, the handle refers to the ugly side, and the first month returns to the Yin position, so the “handle returns to Yin” is the beginning of spring and the year; “handle returns to Yin” refers to the beginning of all things All the meaning of regeneration. In the Ganzhi era of ancient times, the first month of Jianyin (photo taken in tiger), the beginning of spring (the year’s day). Because of the vast territory of our country and the great difference of climate, the specific climate meaning of “spring start” is not applicable to all parts of the country, and the solar term “spring start” is only a reference for many areas. In the historical development and evolution, due to the change of dynasties and calendars, the first year (New Year) is also different in date. The set date of Chinese New Year is not the same: [17-18]
In the ancient times, when I was old, i.e. the Gan Zhi era, the Yin month was the first month, and the beginning of spring was the beginning of the year. The simplified heavenly stems and earthly branches include ten Heavenly Stems: A, B, C, D, e, J, G, Xin, Ren, GUI, twelve Earthly Branches: Yin, Mao, Chen, Si, Wu, Wei, Shen, you, Xu, Hai, Zi, Chou. Ten Heavenly Stems and twelve Earthly Branches are matched in turn to form a 60 cycle era. (the Shiti era is now called the Ganzhi calendar; it is classified as the solar calendar, also known as the Chinese solar calendar). [9] [19]
Xia, Shang and Zhou: January in spring is the first month in Xia Dynasty, December in winter is the first month in Shang Dynasty, and November in winter is the first month in Zhou Dynasty. (lunar calendar)
After the unification of the six kingdoms, the first emperor of Qin set October as the first month in winter. (lunar calendar)
The Qin calendar (Zhuanxu calendar) was used in the early Han Dynasty. In the first year of the Taichu period of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty, i.e. 104 B.C., astronomers Tang Du, Luo xiahong, Deng Ping, etc. formulated the Taichu calendar (also known as the 81 minute law calendar), and absorbed the solar terms of the Ganzhi calendar as a supplement to the calendar for guiding agriculture, restoring the original year beginning from October 1 in winter to January 1 in spring.
After the Han Dynasty, there were several emperors who changed the calendar to change the beginning of the year. After Wang Mang usurped the Han Dynasty, it was stipulated that
Spring Festival
Spring Festival
The new moon in December is the beginning of the year. Cao Rui, the emperor of Wei Ming, was once changed to Yin Zheng. After Empress Wu Zetian became emperor, the state name was changed to Zhou and Zhou Zheng was adopted. Since then, the dynasties have changed to Xiazheng, with January 1 as the first day of the year. [20]
Through the development of the times, the later generations gradually perfected the Chinese calendar based on the early calendar. Since then, the Chinese calendar has been used to this day. After 1970, “the Chinese calendar” was renamed “the lunar calendar” (also known as the combination of yin and Yang). [21-24]
After the revolution of 1911, the Gregorian calendar was gradually used. Later, in order to distinguish the two new years of the Chinese calendar and the Gregorian calendar, in view of the fact that the first day of the first month of the Chinese calendar is just around the “spring” solar term, which is one of the twenty-four specific festivals representing the seasonal changes in the calendar of the trunk and the branch, the first day of the first month of the Chinese calendar is renamed “Spring Festival” and the first day of the Gregorian calendar is renamed “New Year’s Day”. [12] [25]
In July 1913 (the second year of the Republic of China), Yuan Shikai approved the first day of the first month of the first lunar month as the Spring Festival, and agreed to the regular Spring Festival holidays, which began in 1914. Since then, the beginning of the lunar new year has been changed from “new year” to “Spring Festival” [26].
Name change
Spring Festival couplets
Spring Festival couplets
The first day of the first lunar month is called Shangri, new year’s day, sanchao, zhengri, new year’s day, Xinzheng, Xinyuan, new year’s day and so on. However, the concept of “Spring Festival” on the first day of the first lunar month in the present lunar calendar, which was not existed in ancient times, was created by the government of the Republic of China. The concept of “Spring Festival” was gradually raised in the period of the Republic of China. During the period of the Republic of China, the Gregorian calendar was introduced and became the standard for farming. In 1914, the government of the Republic of China mentioned in a letter from the Ministry of interior that “it is proposed to designate the Lunar New Year’s day as the Spring Festival”. Therefore, the saying of Spring Festival has gradually spread. [21] [27-28]
After the revolution of 1911, the Northern Government of the Republic of China adopted the Gregorian calendar in 1912, but used the “Republic of China” to record the year. January 1 was the first day of the Gregorian calendar; since 1914, the first day of the first lunar month (the first day of the first lunar month) was regarded as the “Spring Festival”, which was the beginning of the lunar year. [29-30]
On September 27, 1949, the first plenary session of the Chinese people’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) decided to adopt the “chronological method of ad”, calling January 1 of the Gregorian calendar “New Year’s Day” and the first day of the first lunar month of the Chinese calendar “Spring Festival”. [31]
Content development
In the ancient days of the emperor, there had been a dry branch calendar and the rudiments of the year. According to the records of Pangu Wangbiao and Sanming Tonghui: “the name of the emperor’s first branches is to determine the age of the emperor.”. The ten Heavenly stems are as follows: Jianfeng, Zhanmeng, Rouzhao, Qiangzi, Zhuyong, Tuwei, Shangzhang, Chongguang, Xuanhe and Zhaoyang; the twelve Branches are as follows: shitige and Danyi、the great waste, dun, Xiecha, datan, zuog, Gelao, abyssal offering, distress, chifen Ruo. The emperor’s invention has far-reaching influence, and is used in calendar, technique, calculation, naming and other aspects in later generations (the official historical work Zizhitongjian compiled in the Northern Song Dynasty is based on this set of Ganzhi terms). The invention of Gan Zhi marks the emergence of the most primitive calendar, which is used to calculate the age with numbers. [9] [32]
During the Zhou Dynasty, “poetry · wind · July”: “rice was obtained in October, for which spring wine was used to promote longevity October polyester market He said, “kill the lamb.” Life is boundless. ” The document records the scene of people gathering to make wine and slaughter sheep after harvest in October. This scene is not a popular activity at the beginning of the year, and November is the beginning of the year in the Zhou Dynasty. In the pre-Qin period, the customs of the north and the South were different. The customs of different places had not been integrated, spread and popularized. The activities of the festival of the first year were rarely recorded in the Central Plains. [33-34]
The Han Dynasty is the first period of great development after the unification of China. The economic and cultural exchanges between the north and the South made the customs and habits integrate with each other, which provided good social conditions for the spread and popularization of festival customs. Since then, the records of sacrifice at the beginning of the year have gradually appeared in the literature. As mentioned in Cui Shi’s April people’s order of the Eastern Han Dynasty, “the first day of the first month is called the first day. I will lead my wife and worship you. ” The custom of celebrating the new year is becoming more and more popular and abundant in the whole country. [10] [35]
In the Wei and Jin Dynasties, there was a record of the custom of guarding the year on New Year’s Eve. As recorded in the local records written by Zhou Chu of the Jin Dynasty, on New Year’s Eve, everyone gives gifts to each other, which is called “giving years”; the elder and the younger get together to celebrate the perfection, which is called “dividing years”; staying awake at the end of the year, waiting for the dawn, which is called “keeping the years”.
In the Tang Dynasty, people not only went to the gate to pay homage to the new year, but also invented a “New Year’s greeting post”. Li Shimin, Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty, used red gold foil to make a greeting card, which was written by the emperor to “celebrate the world” and granted to ministers. This form was quickly popularized among the people, and plum blossom paper was used instead. At that time, this kind of “New Year greeting” was called “feitie”.
In Song Dynasty, people began to make “firecrackers” (firecrackers) out of gunpowder wrapped in paper tubes and hemp stems. The custom of setting off firecrackers on New Year’s Eve and spring festival gradually prevailed. “It’s night,” said the Tokyo dreamland. “It’s night. Firecrackers are forbidden. You can hear them outside.”
In the Ming Dynasty, the kitchen god, door god, new year’s Eve Festival and 15 Lantern Festival were popular. According to Jiaxing records of Wanli, “on New Year’s Eve, yimenshen, Taofu, chuntie and Jingwei were all sealed. Firecrackers, burnt purple, wine and fruit, gongs and drums all night long, it is called Shou Sui. ” [36]
The Qing Dynasty attached great importance to the new year, the palace was very luxurious, and the emperor had the custom of giving the officials the blessing. The new year’s Eve lasts until the Lantern Festival. Guessing lantern riddles is a popular way to have fun.
The revolution of 1911 brought a new era, and the government advocated the new calendar. In terms of etiquette, the former rites such as kneeling or bowing were all abolished, and the new rites such as hat dropping, bowing, handshaking and clapping were changed, gradually becoming the civilized ceremony of Chinese interpersonal communication. [37]
Folk custom editor
Traditional folklore
Traditional festival rituals and related custom activities are the important contents of festival elements, bearing rich and colorful festival culture. The new year’s Day (New Year’s day) is an ancient festival in China, and also the most important festival in the whole year. In the historical development, it has mixed many kinds of folk customs into one, forming some relatively fixed customs and habits, many of which are still handed down to the present. During the Spring Festival, there are various celebrations, such as lion dance, color floating, dragon dance, God wandering, temple fair, flower street shopping, flower lights, gongs and drums, vernier flag, fireworks burning, blessing praying, spring beating, stilts walking, roller boat running, Yangko dancing, etc. The custom of offering sacrifices to gods (ancestors) prevails in the southern coastal areas, inheriting the ancient customs. During the Spring Festival, there are many grand activities of offering sacrifices to gods and blessings of heaven and earth, greeting the new year and praying for blessings, which are colorful, lively, festive and full of new year flavor. During the Spring Festival, it’s popular in many places, such as sticking to the new year’s red, guarding the new year, eating the new year’s dinner and greeting the new year. However, due to the different customs, the details have their own characteristics. The Spring Festival folk custom forms are various, the content is rich, is the Chinese nation’s life culture essence concentrated display. [38-41]
Spring Festival is a new day. Although it is set on the first day of the first lunar month, the activities of Spring Festival are not only on the first day of the first lunar month. From the end of the 24th new year, people began to “busy the year”: offering sacrifices to the kitchen, sweeping the dust, purchasing new year’s goods, sticking up new year’s red, washing their hair and bathing, and putting on lights and decorations. All these activities have a common theme, that is, “farewell to the old and welcome the new”. Spring Festival is a happy, peaceful and family reunion festival. It is also a carnival and eternal spiritual pillar for people to express their yearning for happiness and freedom. Before the festival, people who have left Biejing will return home as much as possible to have a family reunion and share the happiness of family. On New Year’s Eve, the whole family gathered together to eat the “reunion dinner”. The elders distributed “lucky money” to the children, and then “keep the year” to welcome the new year. During the new year’s festival, relatives and friends visit each other to pay a new year’s visit, expressing their feelings for relatives and friends as well as their best wishes for the new year’s life. [34] [42-43]
Folk activities
Folk activities (16)
The Spring Festival is also a day for people to worship their ancestors and pray for the new year. Sacrifice is a kind of belief activity, which is a belief activity created by human beings in ancient times and harmoniously coexists with the nature of heaven and earth. All things are based on heaven and human beings are based on ancestors. On the basis of offering sacrifices to gods (ancestors) in the Spring Festival and reviewing the ecological world of “unity of heaven and human beings” built by ancestors, people remember and feel the sanctity and majesty of good living virtue of gods (ancestors) in the heaven and earth

Don’t forget to shoulder the responsibility and mission entrusted by the “order of heaven” to maintain human relations and goodness. Only when we are in awe can we go far. For this reason, during the busy spring festival, the traditional culture of worshiping the emperor Fazu followed the ancestor’s rules, paid tribute and incense, worshipped and saluted, solemnly and meticulously. A series of festival ritual procedures unfolded in turn represent the layer by layer display of Festival cultural connotation, making traditional festivals solemn and meaningful. [4] [43-45]
The Spring Festival is also a festival for people’s entertainment and carnival. At the turn of the Yuan Dynasty, fireworks and firecrackers were all over the sky, and various activities to celebrate the new year reached a climax. On the morning of the first day of the new year, each family burnt incense to salute the heaven and the earth, to sacrifice to the ancestors, and then paid homage to the elder in turn, and then congratulated each other’s relatives and friends. After the first day of the lunar new year, a variety of entertainment activities were carried out, adding a strong festive atmosphere to the Spring Festival. The warm atmosphere of the festival is not only in every family, but also in every street. During this period, the Lantern Festival was full of people, the streets were full of people, and the festival was full of excitement and unprecedented splendor. The Spring Festival was not really over until after the Lantern Festival on the 15th day of the first month. Therefore, the Spring Festival has become the most solemn festival of the Chinese nation. [34] [46-47]
Traditional custom
Handle new year’s products
Handle new year’s products
Handle new year’s products
Chinese New Year’s customs have a long history. There are many and varied new year’s customs in different parts of the country. Although there are different customs in different parts of the country, the preparation of new year’s goods and the delivery of new year’s gifts are “necessary” in almost all parts of the country. Purchase of new year’s goods, including food, clothing, wear, use, paste (New Year’s red), send (New Year’s day) gifts, etc., are collectively called “New Year’s goods”, and the process of purchasing new year’s goods is called “New Year’s goods”. Doing new year’s goods is an important activity for Chinese people to celebrate the Spring Festival. [48-49]
Sacrifice kitchen
On the 23rd / 24th of December in the lunar calendar. The folk sacrifice to the kitchen originated from the ancient custom of worshiping fire. “Shi Ming”: “Zao. Make food. ” The kitchen god’s duty is to take charge of the kitchen fire, manage the food and drink, and later expand it to investigate the good and evil in the world, so as to bring down the good and evil. Offering sacrifices to kitchen has a history of thousands of years among Chinese people. The belief of Kitchen God is a reflection of Chinese people’s pursuit of the dream of “more food and clothing”. [40] [50-51]
Sweeping dust
Sweeping dust
Sweeping dust
In the folk, on the eve of the new year, there is a custom of “sweeping the dust on the 24th of the twelfth lunar month (also known as sweeping the house).”. The folk saying is “24, sweep the house”. People call it “Sweeping Day”. Sweeping is the year-end sweeping. Every household should clean the environment, clean all kinds of utensils, remove the bedding curtains, sweep the six Lu courtyard, dust the cobweb, and dredge the open channel and underground ditch. There is a joyful atmosphere of sanitation and clean spring festival everywhere. According to the folk saying: because of the homophony of “Chen” and “Chen”, sweeping the dust years ago had the meaning of “removing the old and creating the new”. The purpose of sweeping the dust is to sweep out all the bad luck and misfortune in order to pray for the good luck of next year. [43] [52-53]
Paste the new year’s red (waving spring)
On the 28th, 29th or 30th of the lunar new year, every household “pastes the new year red” (the new year red is a general term for the red festive elements pasted on the Spring Festival couplets, door gods, horizontal banners, New Year pictures, the word “Fu” and so on). Chinese New Year paste red (waving spring) is a traditional Chinese New Year custom, which adds a festive atmosphere and places people’s good expectations for the new year and new life. [54]
Spring couplet: according to the literature works such as jade candle Scripture and Yanjing chronicle of the age, the original form of spring couplet is what people call “peach blossom”. Another source of spring couplets is spring couplets. The ancients used to paste the word “Yichun” on the first spring day, and then gradually developed into spring couplets. Spring couplets are also called door couplets, spring couplets, couplets, couplets, peaches and so on. They describe the background of the times in neat, dual, concise and exquisite words and express good wishes. They are unique literary forms in China. Every Spring Festival, no matter in the city or in the countryside, every family should select a red couplet and paste it on the door to increase the festive atmosphere for the festival. [40] [55-56]
New Year pictures: Spring Festival hanging New Year pictures are also very common in urban and rural areas. The thick black and colorful new year pictures add a lot of prosperous and happy atmosphere to thousands of families. New Year pictures are a kind of ancient folk art in China, which reflect the simple customs and beliefs of the people and place their hope for the future. With the rise of woodblock printing, the contents of New Year pictures are not only limited to monotonous themes such as door gods, but also become colorful. [28]
Window flowers and the word “Fu”: in the folk people also like to paste all kinds of paper-cut on the windows – window flowers. Window flowers not only set off the festive atmosphere, but also set up decoration, appreciation and practicality. At the same time, some people want to paste the word “Fu” on the door, the wall and the lintel. There are also folk fine depictions of the word “Fu” into various patterns, such as longevity star, longevity peach, carp jumping over the dragon’s gate, five grains, and dragon and Phoenix presenting auspiciousness. [57-58]
Family reunion dinner
Family reunion dinner
Family reunion dinner
Chinese New Year’s Eve meal, also known as Chinese New Year’s dinner, Chinese New Year’s Day meal, Chinese New Year’s Day meal and so on, especially refers to the family dinner at the end of the year. The feast originated from the ancient year-end sacrifice ceremony, which worships the gods and ancestors for reunion and dinner. New year’s Eve dinner is the highlight of new year’s Eve. It is not only colorful, but also thoughtful. Before having the reunion dinner, worship the gods and ancestors first, and then start the meal after the worship ceremony. There are usually chicken (meaning to have a plan), fish (meaning to have more than one year), oyster and black bean (meaning to be good at the market), hairdressing (meaning to be rich), beancurd (meaning to be rich), lotus root (meaning to be smart), lettuce (meaning to be rich), garlic (meaning to be calculated)

Sausages, etc. for good luck. Chinese New Year’s dinner is a family reunion dinner. It is the most abundant and important dinner at the end of the year. [59-63]
Shou Sui
New year’s Eve is one of the year’s customs, which has a long history. The folk custom of keeping the year is mainly manifested in that all houses light the year-old fire, the family get together, and keep the “year-old fire” from going out, waiting for the time to say goodbye to the old and welcome the new, to welcome the new year. On New Year’s Eve, the lights stay up all night. It is said that “light the year with a light” or “light the year with a fire”. All houses are lighted with candles, and the candles are specially lit at the bottom of the bed. The lights are burned all over the place. It is said that after such lighting, the wealth of the family in the next year will be enriched. In ancient times, the customs of the north and the South were different. In ancient times, the customs of keeping the year old in some places in the north were mainly for staying up. For example, according to the local records written by Zhou Chu of the Jin Dynasty, on New Year’s Eve, everyone gave gifts to each other, which was called “giving a gift”; when the young and the old got together, they praised each other completely, which was called “dividing the year”; when they stayed up at the end of the year, they waited for the dawn, which was called “keeping the year old”. On New Year’s Eve, the whole family get together, eat Chinese New Year’s Eve dinner, light candles or oil lamps, sit around the stove and chat, stay up all night, symbolizing to drive away all the evil plague and look forward to the good luck of the new year. [37] [54] [64]
Lucky money
Lucky money
New year’s money (12 pieces)
New year’s money is one of the customs of new year. The elders should send the prepared new year’s money to the younger generation after the new year’s dinner. It is said that new year’s money can suppress evils, and the younger generation can live a peaceful life after getting the new year’s money. New year’s money in folk culture means to ward off evil spirits and exorcise ghosts, and bless peace. The original intention of new year’s money is to suppress evil and drive away evil spirits. Because people think children are vulnerable to sneaky attacks, they use new year’s money to drive away evil spirits.
In history, there are many kinds of new year’s money, which is usually sent to the younger generation by the elders in the countdown to the new year to express their concern and sincere blessing to the younger generation. The other is given to the old by the younger generation. The “year” of the new year’s money refers to the year, which is intended to look forward to the old’s longevity. The earliest Chinese New Year coins can be traced back to the Han Dynasty, which is also known as the Chinese New Year coins. They are not circulated on the market, but cast into the form of coins for appreciation and have the function of avoiding evil spirits. [65-66]
God of travel
New year’s custom
New year’s custom
The wandering God is one of the traditional New Year customs. Traveling gods, also known as holy driving tour, traveling master, camp master, traveling Bodhisattva, traveling God competition, new year’s calendar, greeting God, greeting the new year, traveling spring, traveling incense, Bodhisattva’s hometown, carrying gods, and visiting gods, etc., refer to that people invite walking gods into the God’s sedan in the temple during the new year or other festive festivals, or on the Christmas day of gods, and then carry them out of the temple tour to accept the people’s Incense worship means that Gods land in the folk, patrol the countryside, and bless the peace of the whole country. The main purpose is to pay God, eliminate disasters and pray for blessings. Along the way, Youshen is accompanied by a variety of performances such as gongs and drums, suona, puppets, lion dances, dragon dances, colors, flags, lanterns, octaves, acrobatics and band performances. It is a traditional folk activity integrating worship, prayer, celebration and feast. [67-69]
In Chaoshan area, Youshen is also known as “Youshen competition” and “Yingye master”. It is a traditional folk custom activity in Chaoshan area. During the Spring Festival every year, in chronological order, villages and towns hold folk Youshen activities in turn, with a lively scene. In the western part of Guangdong Province, it is also called “you master”, “you Bodhisattva”, or “chronology”; the so-called chronology refers to “dating back to the ancient times, and there are examples every year”. In Beiliu area, it is also called “chronology”. In the Pearl River Delta area, also known as “Bodhisattva village”, people carry statues to tour around the village and receive blessings. In Fuzhou, it is also called “greeting God”. From the third to the fifteenth day of the first month of the lunar calendar, it is the time of wandering God, which has become one of the important activities of “making new year” in the countryside. The wandering God often takes the village as the unit, sometimes several villages are united, patrolling the village in groups in the sound of gongs, drums and firecrackers, and the common people watch and greet each other, with a warm scene. [40] [68] [70-72]
Worship year
One of the popular activities of the new year is to worship the new year. In the first morning of the new year, worship the “God of the year”. “Sui”, also known as “Shiti” and “Taisui”, is the star name of ancient times. Taisui is also a god of folk belief. There are 60 year olds in the running cycle of the 60 year old’s chronology. Each year, one year old God is on duty. In that year, Taisui, who is on duty, is called “Taisui of the year”. He is the master of the year and is in charge of the good and bad fortune of the world. As the three Life Association said, “the man who is too old is the master of one year old and the leader of gods”. It is the oldest traditional custom of Chinese new year, which is still popular in Guangdong, especially in Wuchuan. On the first day of the new year, the traditional custom of greeting the new year, worshiping the God of the new year and receiving blessings has been passed down from generation to generation. [9] [34] [73]
temple fair
Temple fair is one of the folk activities during the Spring Festival. Guangfu temple fair and Beijing Ditan temple fair are also called two major temple fairs in China. It covers the theme activities such as puppet gathering, Chinese unique skills, Wulin conference, Lantern Festival and so on, including blessing culture, folk culture, food culture, business and leisure culture and so on. [69]
Pay New Year call
Pay New Year call
Pay New Year call
Visiting new year during the Spring Festival is one of the traditional customs of the new year. It is a way for people to say goodbye to the old and welcome the new and express good wishes to each other. On the second and third day of the first year, I began to visit my relatives and friends, to greet each other, to congratulate them, and to say New Year’s greetings, congratulations on getting rich, Congratulations, and happy new year. The significance of the new year’s greetings is to visit and communicate with friends and relatives, to celebrate the new year, to express their feelings for relatives and friends, and to express their good wishes for the new year’s life.

With the development of the times, new contents and forms have been added to the custom of greeting the new year. As early as the Song Dynasty, special greeting cards, called “famous stabs” or “famous stickers”, had been used between the families of royal family, noble scholar officials and their relatives. [64] [66] [76]
Paley is
Pai Li is one of the old customs that have been circulating for a long time. There are also “Li Shi” or “Li Shi” in writing. Pai Li is, Li is Li is, which means to be able to benefit for a year. The word “Li Shi” has existed in ancient times. It has been recorded in the book of changes as early as that time, and it has the meaning of “little profit”. The proverb of Yuan Dynasty also mentioned that “in order to auspicious omen, we should ask for a profit market from the master”, which shows that profit market also has the meaning of good luck. According to yizazhu, “business is profitable, business is profitable”. The business people call it profit market, which means it is beneficial to do anything. [77-78]
Burning firecracker
Firecracker
Firecracker
There is a saying among the Chinese people that “open the door and engage in gunfire”. That is to say, when the new year comes, the first thing for every household to open the door is to burn firecrackers, and to remove the old and welcome the new with the sound of firecrackers. Firecrackers are a special product of China, also known as “explosive”, “firecracker”, “firecracker”, “firecracker”. Its origin is very early. As for the evolution process of firecrackers, it is recorded in popular arrangement excellent: “ancient firecrackers. They are all made of real bamboo, so Tang poetry is also called “exploding pole”. Later generations roll paper for it. It is called “firecracker”. [36]
The original purpose of firecrackers was to welcome gods and expel ghosts. Later, its strong festive color developed into a symbol to say goodbye to the old and welcome the new. Firecrackers can create a festive and lively atmosphere. It is a kind of entertainment activity of the festival, which can bring happiness and auspiciousness to people. [28] [36]
Festival activities
Busy year (small year)
Buy new year’s red or write new year’s red
Buy new year red or write new year red (5 pieces)
At the end of the year, the busy year begins on December 23 or 24, also known as the “small year”. Xiaonian does not refer to a single day. Because of different customs, the days called Xiaonian are not the same. Before the Qing Dynasty, the traditional day of offering sacrifices to the kitchen god was December 24. Since the middle and late Qing Dynasty, the emperor’s family held a ceremony on December 23. In order to “save money”, the kitchen god was also worshipped by the way, and it worked. The folk people in the North followed the example of December 23. Most of the southern regions still had December 24 The tradition of Xiaonian. Xiaonian is the beginning and foreshadowing of the whole celebration of Spring Festival. There are two main activities: sweeping the dust and sacrificing the kitchen. [51] [79-81]
Traditional customs: offering sacrifices to the kitchen, steaming huamo, buying NianHong, eating kitchen candy and sweeping the dust. [24] [81]
Twenty eight
On the 28th of the new year, the old new year’s red was removed, and some places began to paste the new year’s red. There is a saying in Guangdong that “on the 28th of the lunar year, washing is sloppy”. It means that on the 28th of the 12th lunar month, the whole family should stay at home to clean up, paste New Year’s red and welcome the new year. [40]
New year’s Eve
Annual red
Paste New Year’s red (17 pieces)
New year’s Eve is the last night of the year. The last day at the end of the year is called “year break”, which means that the old year ends here and the new year is changed. To get rid of means to get rid of; to get rid of means to get rid of. “New Year’s Eve” is the meaning of the year-end Eve, also known as the new year’s Eve, new year’s Eve, new year’s Eve, etc., which is the last night of the year. New year’s Eve is the day of new year’s cloth, family reunion and ancestor worship. Qingming Festival, July half Festival and Chongyang Festival are traditional ancestor worship festivals in China. New year’s Eve is of special significance in the hearts of Chinese people. On the most important day at the end of this year, the wandering wanderers who are no longer far away must rush home to reunite with their families, and leave the old year in the sound of firecrackers. Fireworks are all over the sky to welcome the new year. On New Year’s Eve, we worship our ancestors and have dinner for the new year’s day. After the new year’s Eve, we have the custom of giving money to celebrate the new year and keeping the new year’s day. [40] [81-82]
Traditional customs: set up heaven and earth table, worship ancestors, burn cannons, eat new year’s Eve meal, pick up gods, step down, pick up the God of wealth [24] [81].
Chinese new year’s day
From the beginning of the new year, the theme of greeting the new year and receiving blessings, worshiping the ancestors of gods and praying for a good year began. At the turn of the Yuan Dynasty, firecrackers, fireworks, farewell to the old, new year and other celebrations reached their climax. In the sound of firecrackers, I bid farewell to the old age, and fireworks filled the sky to welcome the new year. In the morning of the Spring Festival, when the door is opened to the public, firecrackers are fired first, which is called “open firecrackers” to send off the old and welcome the new. After the sound of firecrackers, the ground is full of broken red, which is like brocade. It is called “full of red”. On the first day of the first month, welcome the new year. In the morning, families burn incense to salute, worship heaven and earth, ancestors and God of the year. Then I would like to pay a new year’s greetings to my elders in turn, and then my relatives and friends of the same family would like to congratulate each other. On the first day of the new year, people get up early, put on the most beautiful clothes and go out in a neat way. Good luck for the new year. [40] according to Zhanshu, the first day of the first day of the first month is “chicken day”.
Traditional customs: open fire, worship, pray, worship, occupy, gather money. [13] [15] [46] [83-85]
2nd day of the first lunar month
Return home
Back home (9)
The second day of the new year is the new year’s day. In the morning, people worship the gods of heaven and earth. After the ceremony, they burn guns and paper treasures, and then eat “New Year’s rice”. This “New Year’s meal” is usually prepared with pickles, lettuce, fish, etc., intended to make money and profit. This day, the married daughter went back to her mother’s house and asked her husband and son-in-law to go with her, so it is commonly known as “welcoming son-in-law day”. The daughter who goes back to her mother’s house must bring some gifts and red bags, distribute them to her children, and have lunch at her mother’s house, but she must go back to her mother-in-law’s house before supper. [40] [81] according to Zhanshu, the second day of the first month is “dog day”.
Traditional customs: worship God, New Year meal, etc. [24] [81]

3rd day of the first lunar month
The third day of the new year is also known as red dog day, which is the same as “red mouth”. It is the God of fury. It is one of the five ancient emperors (the Eastern Qing emperor Lingwei Yang, the southern Red Emperor chifan Nu, the central Yellow Emperor Han hub, the western White Emperor baizhaoju, and the northern black emperor Zhixian). It is the God of the South and is responsible for summer. It is commonly believed that sun Chifu was angry with his brother, but it was not good when he met him. Therefore, in the “small year Dynasty” case, ancestors should be worshipped. “Chikou” usually doesn’t go out to celebrate the new year. It’s said that it’s easy to quarrel with people on this day. In ancient times, people in southern China had to paste “chikou” (Forbidden mouth) on the morning of the third day of the lunar new year. They thought that it was easy to have quarrels on this day, so they should not pay homage to the new year. The so-called “red mouth” is usually a red paper about seven or eight inches long and one inch wide, on which there are some words about safe and auspicious access. In a word, sticking “red mouth” is to make people feel that they can go in and out safely all year round without quarreling with others or all kinds of unfortunate disasters. In the family, we can recruit more money and treasure, and everything goes well.
Traditional custom: burn door god paper.
2th day of the first lunar month
The fourth day of the new year is the day of sacrificing to the God of wealth. In Zhanshu, legend
Mammon
Mammon
The fourth day of the first month is the day when Nuwa made sheep, so it’s called “sheep day”. In this day, people can’t kill sheep. If the weather is good, it means that the sheep will be raised very well in this year, and the people who raise them will have a good harvest.
Traditional customs: meet God, meet God, meet five ways, eat and fold Luo, throw poor.
5th day of the first lunar month
On the fifth day of the first month, according to the folk custom, it is the birthday of the five way God of wealth. Therefore, we should welcome the God of wealth into our home and bless our family to have more money in the new year. At the same time, it is also a day to send off the “poor”, so there is a saying of “sending the poor out”. This day, also known as “breaking the five”, means that many taboos of the previous days have ended. In addition to the above taboos, breaking the five customs is mainly to send the poor, welcome the God of wealth and open the market for trade. There is a custom of eating dumplings in the north, which means to attract money and treasure. It is said that the fifth day of the first month is “cattle day”.
Traditional customs: sacrifice to the God of wealth (South), send to the poor and open the market.
6th day of the first lunar month
The sixth day of the first month is “horse day”, which is called liuliudashun. On this day, every household should throw out the garbage accumulated during the festival, which is called sending the poor. The sixth day of the Lunar New Year is also the opening day of the market. Only when the shops and restaurants are officially opened, can they set off firecrackers as much as new year’s Eve.
Traditional customs: send the poor to the city.
7th day of the first lunar month
Lion Dance
Lion Dance
The seventh day of the seventh day is a person’s day, that is, a person’s birthday, usually does not go out to pay a new year’s Eve. “Zhanshu” said that from the beginning of the seventh day, God created everything in the order of “one chicken, two dogs, three pigs, four sheep, five cows, six horses, seven people and eight grains”, so the seventh day is man day. [40] since the documents of Han Dynasty, there have been written records of people’s daily customs, and attention has been paid to them since the Wei and Jin Dynasties. In ancient times, there was a custom of wearing “human winning”. Human winning is a kind of headdress, also known as colorful winning and Huasheng. [81]
Traditional customs: smoke the sky, eat seven treasure soup, send the God of fire
8th day of the first lunar month
The eighth day of the year is the commencement date, and the distribution of commencement profits is the first thing Guangdong bosses do on the first day after the new year’s Eve. The profits are profits, which means that all profits in one year are great. The visit to relatives and friends before the eighth day of the year was basically completed. Since the eighth day of the year, the folk have successively carried out activities of worshiping gods, wandering gods, setting up clans, lion dancing, dragon dancing, floating colors, lamp swimming, making Jiao, marking guns, performing large operas and various literary and artistic performances. It is said that the eighth day of the eighth lunar month is the birthday of millet. If it’s cloudy, it’s a bad year. If it’s sunny, it’s a good harvest.
Traditional customs: following the stars, wandering gods, making the head of fasting, releasing life and praying for blessings
9th day of the first lunar month
set off firecrackers
set off firecrackers
The ninth day of the first month is the day of heaven. It is said that this day is the birthday of the Jade Emperor, the highest god in the heaven. It is commonly known as “tiangongsheng”. It is said that the “heavenly Father” is the “Jade Emperor”, and Taoism calls it “four emperors”. He is the highest god in the heaven. He is the highest god who commands the gods of the Three Kingdoms and ten directions and all spirits in the world, representing the supreme “heaven”. The main customs include sacrificing to the Jade Emperor, Taoist temple and fasting heaven. In some places, women prepare fragrant flower candles and fasting bowls and place them in the open air at the entrance of Tianjing alley to worship heaven and ask for the blessing of heaven.
10th day of the first lunar month
On the 10th day of the first month, some areas in the South have the custom of turning on the lights and setting up a banquet. It is a custom in Henan province that every family pays homage to the stone burning incense on this day, thinking that “ten” is homophonic to “stone”. Therefore, the tenth day of the Lunar New Year is the birthday of stone. On this day, all stone tools such as grinding and grinding can not be moved, and even stone worship is set up to protect crops. It is also known as “stone immovable” and “ten immovable”; it is necessary to eat steamed bread for lunch, and it is believed that eating bread within one year will lead to good fortune. In Yuncheng and other places in Shandong Province, there is a move to lift the stone God.
January eleven
“Son in law day” on the 11th day of the first month is the day when father-in-law entertains son-in-law. In the ninth day of the ninth day of the lunar new year, there are still a lot of food left for the celebration of “heavenly Father”. Therefore, the family doesn’t need to spend any more money to entertain the son-in-law and daughter with these leftover food. The folk song is called “invite the son-in-law on the eleventh day”.
January twelve
The Lantern Festival
The Lantern Festival
On the twelfth day of the first month, I set up a light shed, a lantern party, made the head of the house, made the Jiao, marked the cannon, etc. From now on, people began to prepare to celebrate the Lantern Festival, buy lanterns, build a light shed, do Jiao, mark the cannon. There is a nursery rhyme: “eleven are shouting and chirping, twelve are setting up lamp sheds, thirteen are turning on the lights, fourteen are bright, fifteen lines and a half months, and sixteen are finishing the lights.” [81]
The 13th and 14th day of the first month
On the 13th and 14th day of the first month, lion dancing, floating colors, wandering gods and temple fairs are held. It is said that the 13th day of the first month is “the birthday of the lamp head”. On this day, people will light the lamp under the kitchen stove, which is called “lighting the kitchen stove lamp”. [87]

The 15th day of the first month (Lantern Festival)
On the 15th day of the first month, there are many custom activities, such as watching lights, swimming lights, boating, firing guns, burning fireworks, picking green, and making lantern festival. The festival custom of Lantern Festival has its own characteristics. The festival period and activities also extend with the development of history. Since ancient times, Lantern Festival has been dominated by a lively and festive custom of watching lanterns. Up to now, fireworks is also one of the main customs of Lantern Festival. [24] [88]
Seasonal food
Rice cake
Rice cake
See: rice cake
New Year cake belongs to the seasonal food of Chinese New Year. It has three colors of red, yellow and white, symbolizing gold and silver. A kind of cake steamed with sticky glutinous rice or rice flour. It has the habit of eating New Year’s cake in the south. The sweet sticky New Year’s cake symbolizes the sweet honey of the new year’s life and keeps growing step by step.
Eating New Year cake in Spring Festival, “Yi takes the year to win the year, so as to pray for longevity.” It means that everything goes well every year. The types of rice cakes include: white rice cakes and yellow rice cakes in the north; Shuimo rice cakes in the South; Nuo rice cakes in the southwest; and red turtle cakes in Taiwan. In the north, there are two kinds of rice cakes: steamed and fried. In addition to steamed and fried, there are also many ways to stir fry and boil soup. [2] [89]
Dumplings
Dumplings
See dumplings
Dumplings, known as “Jiaozi” in ancient times, have a tradition of eating dumplings in northern Chinese New Year’s Eve. However, the customs of eating dumplings vary from place to place. Some places eat dumplings on New Year’s Eve, and some places eat dumplings on the first day of the lunar new year. In the evening, people in the North don’t eat dumplings, and they will feel that there is no atmosphere for the new year. Some mountain areas in the north also have the custom of eating dumplings every morning from the first day to the fifth day.
Eating dumplings is a unique way to express people’s wish for good luck when they say goodbye to the old and welcome the new. From 11:00 p.m. to 1:00 a.m. the next day, the “Jiaozi” is the time when the new year and the old year meet. Jiaozi means more years old. Eating jiaozi during the Spring Festival is considered to be auspicious. [56] [89-91]
Glutinous Rice Balls for Lantern Festival
Glutinous Rice Balls for Lantern Festival
See: Tangyuan
The food for the Lantern Festival in the south is called “Tangyuan”, which is also called “Yuanxiao”, “tangtuan” and “fuyuanzi”. It is one of the representatives of Chinese traditional snacks, and it is a spherical food made of glutinous rice flour. Generally there are fillings, cooked with soup. At the same time, it is also the most characteristic food of the Lantern Festival. Use black sesame and lard as stuffing, add a little white sugar, and knead it into a circle with glutinous rice flour. Because this glutinous rice dumpling is floating and heavy in the pot, it was first called “fuyuanzi”, and later in some areas, it was renamed “fuyuanzi”. In Jiangsu, Shanghai and other places, there is the custom of eating Tangyuan on the morning of the new year. [89]
Spring pancake
Spring pancake
See: Spring Roll
Spring roll is also called spring cake. It’s an old Chinese custom to eat spring cake at the beginning of spring. In the Jin Dynasty, there were five taro dishes, namely spring dishes, which put spring cakes and vegetables in the same dish.
In the Tang and Song Dynasties, the spring cake was popular in spring, and the Emperor gave it to his officials. At that time, the spring plate was very exquisite: “the green wisps of red silk, the Golden Chicken and the jade swallow, with extremely exquisite preparation, each plate was ten thousand yuan.”. People also give to each other.
Today, the shape of spring cake varies with the place, and the eating time varies with the place. They are baked or steamed; they are as big as a fan or as small as a lotus. [92]
Ethnic flavor
China is a multi-ethnic country with different forms of New Year celebrations. In ancient Mongolia, the Spring Festival is called “white Festival”, and the first month is called “white moon”, which means good luck. Tibetans have lived in Tibet for many years. [93]
The Korean nationality
Influenced by Han culture, Korean people also have the custom of Spring Festival. On New Year’s Eve, the whole family stayed up all night, and the music of Yeqin and tube flute brought people into the new year. On the night of the 15th day of the first lunar month, a traditional celebration gathering was held. Several selected old people boarded the “moon watching rack” to see the bright moon as a blessing, which means their children and grandchildren are healthy, progressive and all the best. Later, we danced around the lighted “moon watcher”, accompanied by the long drum, tube flute and Suona music.
The Zang or Tibetan people
In the middle reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River, there is a tradition of “looking for fruits” before the autumn harvest. According to legend, this is all a legacy of the Spring Festival in ancient Tibet in June. There is also the Tibetan New Year in October, which originates from those ancient times. About the 13th century AD, when the Sakya dynasty ruled Tibet, Tibetans celebrated the new year on the first month of the Tibetan calendar.
Daur nationality
The Daur Spring Festival is called “agne”. On the morning of the thirtieth year of the new year, my family swept the courtyard. In the front of the gate, they made a high stack of sundries and manure. In the evening, when the stack was lit, there was a light smoke, and the festival atmosphere was everywhere. In the evening, the whole family ate handlebar meat and held various activities to say goodbye to the old and welcome the new. People put incense in the snow on the west side of the house, and they kowtow to the west to remember their ancestors.
Gaoshan Nationality
In the Spring Festival, the people of Gaoshan ethnic group dress in gorgeous national costumes, gather in groups at the village head to drink good wine, and sing and dance under the accompaniment of musical instruments. Some villages also hold cross fish competitions and carry out basket ball, pole ball and other sports activities. [94]
Editor of literary records
poetry
Reference source: [95-96]
Spring Festival poetry
Spring Festival poetry
The first day of Tian family (Tang Dynasty) Meng Haoran
Selling dementia CI (Song Dynasty) Fan Chengda
“The great night” (Tang Dynasty) to the swan
Wang Wan at the foot of cibeigu mountain (Tang Dynasty)
Wang Anshi in the first day (Song Dynasty)
“Spring in the jade tower, the first day of self Mao’s life” (Song Dynasty) Mao Pang
“New Year’s Eve” (Southern Song Dynasty) Wen Tianxiang
“New Year’s greetings” (Ming Dynasty) Wen Zhengming
“Xinzheng in your own right” (Ming Dynasty) Ye Xun
Huang Jingren, Guisi New Year’s Eve (Qing Dynasty)
“Fengcheng New Year’s speech” (Qing Dynasty) Zha Shenxing
Kong Shangren, Jiawu New Year’s Day (Qing Dynasty)
Xue Daoheng in the Song Dynasty
Gao Shi of the Tang Dynasty
The case of sapphire, the first day of the new year (Song Dynasty): Xin Qiji
Sushi in Shou Sui (Song Dynasty)
Tu Su Jiu (Ming Dynasty) Qu you
“Welcome the new spring” (Song Dynasty) Liu Yong
literature

Fu Lu Shou
Fu Lu Shou
“Spring and autumn life chronology”: “heaven and earth open up, everything is muddy, ignorant and unconscious; by virtue of yin and Yang, the celestial body starts from the Arctic field The sun and the moon rotate in five latitudes and one rotation; how does the emperor appear To fix the image of heaven, the instrument of law and earth, and to make branches to fix the sun and the moon. “
“Sanming Tonghui” contains: “a man’s work is as strong as Yang, and a branch is as weak as Yin. In the past, Pangu’s way to the earth tomorrow changed from Yin and yang to three talents. The first monarch divided heaven and earth, then heaven and earth, and lived by gasification. Therefore, the emperor’s surname is thirteen. After Pangu’s surname, it means that the spirit of heaven is indifferent, inaction is vulgar and self-made. He started to make the name of cadres and branches, so as to set the age. ” Song Luobi’s “road history · preji II · emperor Ji” records: “there is a emperor in Guangdong, which is called the spirit of heaven. I hope to gain strong respect.” Wan Minying, a famous historian in the Ming Dynasty, determined that the emperor’s calendar had been invented in the era of the emperor according to the records of ancient Chinese literature, which was recorded in detail in his book Sanming Tonghui. [9] [97]
Erya · Shitian: Taisui’s name is Jianfeng in a, Zhanmeng in B, Rouzhao in C, qiangju in Ding, Yong in Wu, Tuwei in oneself, Shangzhang in G, Chongguang in Xin, Xuanfu in Ren, Zhaoyang in GUI. [9]
The book of changes, a series of poems, was formed by the combination of cold and heat. “Taiping Yulan” Volume 17 quoted “Shi Ming” and said: “the more you are, the more you are. Over, so limit also, year also, and then also before, Si Si also, new gas born, so gas has also, carrier biology also. ” Volume 67 of Kaiyuan ZHANJING quoted the ancient texts of Huainan hongliejian as saying: “doupiao is young.” “The three emperors’ original records”: “the emperor’s surname, King mude, was photographed at the age of.” Shuowen: “age: Jupiter, too.” [98]
“Shangshu · biography” said: “the first day of the first month is the age of the dynasty, the month of the dynasty, the day of the dynasty, so said:” Three Dynasties “, also said:” three beginning. ” [12]
“Shangshu Shundian” said: “on the first day of the first month, received the final Wen Zu.” [99]
“Shuowen Jiezi” said: “in, Gu is familiar with.” As the year is divided into four seasons, spring, summer, autumn and winter, grain means the good or bad of the year, so. “New Year’s Day” means to pray for and celebrate the harvest. He (GU) ripe in Shuowen Jiezi does not represent the time concept of “four seasons of a year”, such as the explanation of he in Guangya jiecao: “he (he) begins to grow in February and becomes one in August.” The growth cycle of grass is only a few months. [98] [100]
“Kongguang biography of the Han Dynasty”: “the age of three dynasties is called Yan shigu’s note: “the age of the dynasty, the month of the dynasty, the day of the dynasty, so called three.” Li Shanzhu: “three dynasties, three new days at the beginning of the year.” Some are called “three starts”. [98]
Ballad
Reference source: [28] [101]
Chinese Ballad: “Twenty three, sacrifice to kitchen officials; twenty four, sweep houses; twenty five, grind tofu; twenty six, cut meat; twenty seven, kill a chicken; twenty eight, steam jujube flowers; twenty nine, go drinking; thirty, make up nose (dumplings); the first day of the first year, pucker up and make a bow.”
Beijing Ballad: “don’t be greedy, little boy. It’s the year after Laba. After a few days of eating Laba porridge, you can enjoy 23 miles of lalala. 23, sweet melon sticks. 24, cleaning the house. 25, frozen tofu. 26, buying meat. 27, slaughtering rooster. 28, making noodles. 29, steaming steamed bread. 30, staying up for a night. First and second day of the first day of the first day of the year, walking all over the street.”
Yudong folk song: “twenty six, steamed bread; twenty seven, wash; twenty eight, paste New Year pictures, twenty-nine, look on the door; thirty, eat dumplings.”
Editor of social effects
Economics
Blessing
Blessing
Spring Festival is the most important and cultural festival in China, and it is also an important driving force to promote industrial economy and domestic consumption. With the rapid growth of national economy and the continuous improvement of residents’ disposable income, the consumption of Spring Festival has also developed from the traditional purchase of new year’s goods to holiday products and services with the characteristics of the times, such as new year’s works, product technology, leisure and entertainment. During the Spring Festival, the large-scale flow of people, finance, materials, information and art has led to the overall prosperity of culture, commerce, transportation, tourism, telecommunications, finance and catering industries, forming a unique “Spring Festival economy”. [7] [75] [102-103]
New year’s Day is a concentrated reflection of people’s annual consumption. With the emergence of new consumption concepts, the Spring Festival is not only a traditional “big year”, but also a “shutter” to drive the market economy. People began to shift from the traditional festival busy to the new celebration trend. “Spring Festival economy” has injected new vigor and vitality into people’s life. Although we can’t wait until the new year to wear new clothes and enjoy delicious food, buying new year’s products, filial piety to the elders and caring for the elders are still the eternal festival tradition of the Chinese nation. [102]
traffic
Spring Festival in China
China’s Spring Festival: the largest migration in the world
China’s Spring Festival: the largest migration in the world
Transportation during the Spring Festival is referred to as “Spring Festival transportation”. It is a unique transportation period in China. With the Spring Festival as the boundary, 15 days before the festival, 25 days after the festival, a total of 40 days, issued by the State Economic and Trade Commission (the starting and ending time of each year is slightly different). The national traffic peak arranged by the Ministry of railways, the Ministry of communications and the General Administration of civil aviation is called the Spring Festival. In about 40 days, there will be more than 2 billion people floating, accounting for one third of the world’s population. The Spring Festival transportation in China selects the world’s largest cyclical transportation peak of China World Record Association.
Spring transportation line
Before the Spring Festival, the key areas are usually Beijing Tianjin, Yangtze River Delta, Fujian and Pearl River Delta.

The key areas after the festival are generally Chengdu, Chongqing, Wuhan, Changsha, Nanchang, Hefei and Fuyang.
Strategy of Spring Festival Transportation
In order to achieve the goal of “ensuring safety, meeting key points, being stable and orderly, and providing good service”, the overall strategy of National Railway Spring Festival transportation is “focusing on customers, win-win situation for both passengers and goods; South to North passengers, South to North vehicles transfer; overall arrangement, key points must be guaranteed; appropriate parking, emergency preparedness; vehicle digging potential, short stop and long-term guarantee; current driving, no current shutdown”.
Reasons for the establishment of Spring Festival
The reason for the establishment of the Spring Festival is that China has a large population, and the Spring Festival is a traditional reunion festival. People have to go home to celebrate the new year. There are too many people who want to take a car. The transportation department needs to make every effort to ensure that passengers can take a car, go home, and come back after energy saving. [104]
Foreign influence editor
Annual festivals
With the significant improvement of China’s comprehensive national strength, the radiation field of Chinese culture is also expanding. The meaning of the Spring Festival has exceeded the scope of China, and has world influence. [5] The Spring Festival is not a unique festival in China. In the countries with Chinese culture circle, those who have been influenced by Chinese culture and have statutory holidays include Vietnam, Indonesia, North Korea, South Korea, Singapore and Malaysia. [105]
Annual festivals in different countries
Overseas Chinese celebrate the Spring Festival
Overseas Chinese Spring Festival (13)
The surrounding countries have been influenced by Chinese culture. In South Korea, North Korea and Vietnam, the Lunar New Year is the most important festival of the year. In the Korean Peninsula, the Lunar New Year is known as the “New Year’s Day” or “old day”. The first to the third day of the first lunar month is the national legal holiday. Vietnam’s Lunar New Year holiday lasts from New Year’s Eve to the third day of the first month, plus Saturday and Sunday. [21]
Some Southeast Asian countries where Chinese live together also set the lunar new year as a legal holiday. In Singapore, from the first to the third day of the first month is a public holiday. Chinese in Malaysia account for a quarter of the total population, and the government has set the first and second days of the first month as legal holidays. Indonesia and the Philippines, which have a large number of Chinese, set the Chinese new year as national public holidays in 2003 and 2004 respectively, but the Philippines does not have holidays.
Japan used to celebrate the new year according to the old calendar (similar to the lunar calendar). After changing to the new calendar from 1873, although most parts of Japan are not in the old calendar, Okinawa County, Kagoshima County, the Amami islands and other areas still retain the complete old calendar customs.
Reunion and dinner
In the old days, South Korea will also face the problem of “Spring Festival” because of the flow of tens of millions of people. Fortunately, South Korea has a small land area, a relatively developed road network, and almost every household has a car, so most Koreans will choose to drive home for the festival. In the Korean Peninsula, every family has to eat “rice cake soup” when they get together, which means another year of growth and the renewal of everything.
Vietnamese regard the Spring Festival as a day to say goodbye to the old and welcome the new. They usually prepare for the Spring Festival from the middle of December. On New Year’s Eve, every family in Vietnam prepares a rich new year’s Eve meal. The whole family gets together and has a reunion dinner. [106]
Chinese families in Singapore get together every year to make rice cakes. The family get together, making all kinds of pastries and talking about family life. They are happy. [106]
Flower market
Flower shopping is one of the important activities of the Spring Festival in Vietnam. About 10 days before the Spring Festival, the flower market is busy. [106]
Pay New Year call
Singaporeans always present a pair of oranges when greeting their relatives and friends, and they must present them with both hands. This comes from the Cantonese New Year custom in southern China. In Cantonese, “orange” and “gold” are homophonic. Sending oranges (giving gold) means auspiciousness, good luck and good things in pairs. [107]
Tai Tai
Singaporeans, like Cantonese in China, have the custom of worshiping the new year. [108]
“Ancestor worship” and “gratitude”
As soon as the New Year bell rings, Vietnamese people will begin to worship their ancestors. The five fruit platter, which symbolizes the five elements of heaven and earth, is an indispensable offering. It not only expresses gratitude to the ancestors, but also hopes for a happy, healthy and good luck in the new year.
On the Korean Peninsula, a formal and solemn ceremony of “sacrifice and year worship” will be held at the beginning of the first month. Men, women, old and young get up early, put on new clothes, some put on traditional national costumes, kowtow to their ancestors in turn, pray for their ancestors to bless peace, and then pay a new year to their elders one by one, thank them for their upbringing. All the elders have to kneel down and kowtow to greet the new year, while the elders have to give them “lucky money” or simple gifts. [109]
Overseas Development
Today, the Spring Festival has entered nearly 200 countries around the world. According to incomplete statistics, at present, nearly 20 countries and regions, including the United States, Canada, the Philippines, Mauritius, etc., have designated the Chinese Spring Festival as a legal holiday for the whole or some cities under their jurisdiction. [5] On August 26, 2018, a number of officials and Chinese community members in California who strongly recognized the Lunar New Year bill held a conference in San Francisco to celebrate the bill’s entry into force. The bill does not directly define the lunar new year as a public holiday, but encourages schools and educational institutions to organize activities to promote Asian cultural traditions. [110]
Other relevant editors
Little knowledge
Spring Festival time
The time of Spring Festival (the first day of the first lunar month) is from January 21 to February 21 of the Gregorian calendar. “The earliest Spring Festival” (such as January 21, 1966) and “the latest Spring Festival” (such as February 20, 1985) are one month apart. According to the calendar calculation, if the lunar calendar is not artificially adjusted, February 21, 2319 will usher in “the latest Spring Festival in history”. Before that, the Spring Festival appeared on February 20 of the Gregorian calendar at the latest, namely 1920 and 1985.

Leap Spring Festival
Leap Spring Festival, also known as leap first month, started from the use of the calendar system in 1645 A.D. to 1155 A.D. 2800, the lunar leap first month occurred only six times, which is very rare. Its years are 1651, 2262, 2357, 2520, 2539, 2634 respectively. [28]
How to celebrate leap Spring Festival
If there is a leap first month in a year, in principle, the Spring Festival is the first first first month, but not the leap first month. Of course, there are also a few areas after the first first first month of the Spring Festival, to leap the first month of the Spring Festival, also leap the first month, because leap the first month is also called the first month, so also leap the first day of the first month as the Spring Festival. [89]
Spring node
Li means “beginning”; spring means warmth and growth. The beginning of spring reflects the change of winter and spring seasons. When the sky is like “fighting handle and returning to Yin”, the transformation of yin and Yang, the rising of Yang and the sting, and the spring of goods and things mean that a new cycle has been opened. “24 solar terms” is the product of ancient farming civilization. It not only plays a guiding role in agricultural production, but also affects the ancient people’s clothing, food, housing and transportation, and even cultural concepts. As a traditional agricultural country, the ancients attached great importance to the beginning of spring. Before the Qin and Han Dynasties, the title of “Spring Festival” was originally the “year’s Day” in the Spring Festival. After the Han Dynasty, the calendars were unified all over the country, and the new year’s Day was moved to the first day of the lunar month, known as the “New Year’s Day”. The festival activities of the Spring Festival not only constitute the framework of the first festival of later generations, but also its folk function remains to this day. There is a close relationship between the arrangement of the 24 solar terms and the intersection of yellow and red. The intersection of yellow and red has a profound impact on the closely related natural geographical phenomena, such as the changes of the four seasons and solar terms on the earth, as well as the changes of the five zones, the pressure zone, the wind zone, the climate zone, the natural zone and so on. The latitude value of the Tropic of cancer is the intersection angle of yellow and red, which is located in the northern hemisphere about 23 ° 26 (can be estimated as 23.5 degrees). The Tropic of cancer (the intersection angle of yellow and red) passes through China. When the astronomical seasons and solar terms change, the phenology and climate of the Tropic of cancer and its surrounding areas are also changing. [17] [111-113]
“Double spring” and “no spring year”
“Double spring” and “no spring year” are the concepts in the Chinese calendar (lunar calendar), which means that there is no “spring” or “double spring” year in the whole year of the lunar calendar. This is because the length of some years of the lunar calendar is shorter than the return year, and some years are longer than the return year. The average length of the Gregorian calendar year is 365.2425 days, which is almost the same as the return year. Therefore, the date of spring in the Gregorian calendar year is basically fixed. Most of the years are February 4, and some years are February 3 or February 5. But the situation of the lunar year is different. The method of the lunar calendar is “19 years 7 leap”, that is, adding 7 leap months in 19 lunar years. The year without leap month in the lunar calendar is 353-355 days, about 11 days less than the return year; the year with leap month is 383-385 days, about 19 days more than the return year. So there are 25 solar terms in leap year and 23 or 24 solar terms in normal year. Therefore, the position of spring in the lunar year presents four situations: at the beginning of the year; at the end of the year; at the end of the year; at the end of the year, there is no spring day. Because of the frequent occurrence of the solar term “spring” running to the end of the previous year or across to the next year, there is a phenomenon of “no spring” or “two spring”. “Double spring” and “no spring year” are caused by the transformation of the Yin and Yang calendar. No matter two or no spring days, they are only normal calendar changes, and have nothing to do with good or bad luck. [114-115]
Folklore
Perpetual calendar
Perpetual calendar of youth creation
Perpetual calendar of youth creation
It is said that a long time ago, there was a young man named Wan Nian. Seeing that the festivals were very disorderly, he had a plan to set them. But he couldn’t find a way to calculate the time. One day, he went up the mountain to cut firewood and was tired. He sat under the shade of the tree to rest. The movement of the shadow inspired him. He designed a sundial to measure the time of the day. Later, the drop spring on the cliff inspired him, and he made a five story leaker to calculate the time. For a long time, he found that every three hundred and sixty days, the four seasons are reincarnated, and the length of days is repeated.
The monarch at that time was called Zuyi, and he was often troubled by the unpredictable weather. Ten thousand years later, he took the sundial and the leaky kettle to the monarch and explained to zub the principle of the sun and the moon. After hearing this, Zuyi was very happy and felt that it made sense. So he left ten thousand years behind, built the sun and moon Pavilion in front of the temple of heaven, built the sundial platform and the leaky pot Pavilion. And hope to be able to measure the law of the sun and the moon, calculate the accurate morning and evening time, create a calendar, and benefit the people in the world. After the establishment of the calendar, Wannian pointed to the sky and said to Zuyi, “now it’s exactly 12 months, the old year is over, and the new spring begins again. Pray for the king to set a festival.”. Zuyi said, “spring is the beginning of the year. It’s called Spring Festival.”. It is said that this is the origin of the Spring Festival. [89] [92]
Leader of Shunji tribe
It is said that one day more than 2000 BC, Shun (leader of the ancient tribal alliance) succeeded the leader of the tribal alliance and led his subordinates to worship heaven and earth. Since then, people have regarded this day as the first day of the first month. It is said that this is the origin of the lunar new year, later called the Spring Festival. [89]

Legend of peach characters
According to jade candle Scripture and Yanjing chronicle of the age, the original form of the door god is what people call “peach Rune”. There is a beautiful legend about Taofu. A long time ago, dushuo mountain in the East China Sea had a beautiful scenery. There was a peach forest on the mountain. One of the peach trees was huge and luxuriant, with three thousand li of twists and turns. The peaches were big and sweet. People could become immortals after eating the peaches on the tree. One dark night, there are blue fangs, red hair and green eyes of the ghosts want to steal peach. The two brothers, Shentu and Yulei, defeated the ghosts with peach branches and fed the tiger watching the mountain with straw ropes.
Since then, the names of the two brothers have been feared by the ghosts. After their death, they have become immortals specialized in punishing evil spirits. Later generations used a one inch wide and seven or eight inch long peach wood board to draw two immortals, the goddess of tea and Yu Lei, hanging on both sides of their own doors to ward off ghosts and evil spirits. This kind of peach wood board is called “peach Rune”. With the changes of the times, the Taofu itself is also changing. Later, people wrote the names of the two immortals on the Taofu instead of the portraits. Later, it developed to “inscribe the Taofu”, that is, short poems with equal number of words, symmetrical structure and corresponding meaning are inscribed on the Taofu. It is said that this is the predecessor of the spring festival couplet. [116-117]
Legend of Nian
Legend of Nian
Legend of Nian
There is a legend about the origin of the Spring Festival. In ancient China, there was a monster called Nian, with long tentacles and ferocity. “Nian” has been living on the sea floor for many years. It never climbed up until new year’s Eve, devouring livestock and injuring human life. Therefore, on New Year’s Eve, people in villages and villages help the old and the young escape to the mountains to avoid the injury of the “Nian” beast.
Then one new year’s Eve, an old man came from the village to beg and told people how to drive out the “Nian” beast. It turns out that “Nian” is most afraid of red, fire and explosion. From then on, every new year’s Eve, every family pasted red couplets and set off firecrackers; every household was bright and waiting for the new year. In the early morning of the first day of the new year, I would like to go out and say hello to friends. This custom has become the most solemn traditional festival among Chinese people. [12] [81] [89] [118-119]
Overview
As for the origin of the Spring Festival, due to the lack of ancient documents (burning books of the first emperor of Qin, or other reasons) in the old time, it is impossible to directly verify its origin and development, so there are many legends in the inheritance and development. Among them, there are several popular sayings. The Spring Festival originated from the ancient “theory of wax sacrifice”, from the “theory of witchcraft ceremony”, from the “theory of Ghost Festival”, from the “theory of ancient harvest sacrifice”, from the “theory of the leader position of the Shun tribe alliance” (it is said that Shun succeeded the emperor position, but the “son of heaven” is said to have originated in the spring and autumn and Warring States period, and was popular in the Han Dynasty), and from the “theory of ten thousand years of youth creating the perpetual calendar” , originated from the legend of avoiding “Nian” beast, etc. In the historical development and evolution, most traditional festivals are attached with some legends to replace their original origins. The Spring Festival is no exception. It is also attached with stories and legends such as “avoiding evil beasts” as its origin. In fact, the Spring Festival is not formed by stories and legends such as “avoiding evil”, which are constructed by later generations. Chinese culture has a long history and is broad and profound. As an important part of Chinese long history and culture, spring festival culture covers human philosophy, astronomy and astrology, and contains profound and rich cultural connotation. Ancient traditional festivals attach great importance to belief and sacrifice activities. Worshiping heaven and ancestors is the core of ancient traditional festivals. The Spring Festival is not formed by stories and legends.
Spring Festival Gala
Spring Festival Gala
CCTV Spring Festival Gala
CCTV Spring Festival Gala
The Spring Festival Gala, usually referred to as “Spring Festival Gala”, is a variety show held by China Central Television on New Year’s Eve to celebrate the lunar new year. In 1983, the Spring Festival gala held by CCTV should be said to be an accident. But this evening party has become the “new folk custom, new culture” of the Chinese people. It is a TV feast that must be watched every new year’s Eve. Since 1983, CCTV Spring Festival Gala, a symbol of family affection and nostalgia of more than one billion Chinese, has become the cultural memory of several generations of Chinese. [120]
From the perspective of cultural development, the Spring Festival Gala of CCTV has created a precedent for TV variety programs, and triggered major changes in the content and way of expression of Chinese TV media. The Spring Festival Gala covers a variety of performance forms such as skits, songs, singing and dancing, acrobatics, magic, opera, crosstalk and so on.

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